A Dynamic Business Model Framework

A Dynamic Business Model Framework

Under an open innovation model, the business model of the firm will be the key driver to determine internal and external innovation activities by the firm. The table below will be helpful to identify an organization’s current business model and to guide how it can improve innovation and IP management practices to transition successfully towards a more open innovation strategy.

Examples of commodity-like, type 1 business models include “mom and pop” restaurants, many family farmers, and other entry-level services establishments such as independent bookstores, cafes, etc. Type 2 business models include organizations such as newly entering companies differentiated based on higher performance – often one-hit wonder startups or organizations. Type 3 business models are illustrated in companies with good product and process technologies such as startups that successfully distributed multiple products and have roadmaps for innovation and expansion, or old-line industrial firms who are still trying to do it all themselves. Type 4 business models start to open up towards the external environment and these include organizations with established corporate R&D activities, working with both internal and external technology. These organizations include some drug companies and financial institutions that proactively assess market demand and generate products around that.

Type 5 business models go beyond this external awareness to integrate both outside-in and inside-out sources of technology, such as IBM, P&G, Kraft, and Masterfoods. The final type of business model is type 6 which offers a platform for others to invest in and build upon the innovations of the firm. Companies in this category include organizations such as Apple, IBM and P&G.
Using the questions in the Dynamic Business Model Framework, a manager will not only be able to assess their group’s innovation strategy but also perform a diagnosis about how it can specialize towards a strategy that creates immense value through the open innovation model!

Matrix of Business Models Framework

Type Business Model Innovation Process IP Management
1 undifferentiated None NA
2 Differentiated Ad hoc Reactive
3 Segmented Planned Defensive
4 Externally Aware Externally Supportive Enabling Asset
5 Integrated Connected to Business Model Financial Asset
6 Platform Leading Identifies New Business Models Strategic Asset


Dynamic Business Model Framework

Description Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6
Title Undifferentiated Differentiated Segmented Externally Aware Integrated with Business Model Platform Player Shapes Markets
Examples Mom and pop restaurants Startup technology companies Technology push companies Mature industrial R&D firms Leading financial firms Intel – Pentium

Walmart, Dell

Diagnostic Questions Is there anything that differentiates this business from its competitors?

Why do customers buy from us?  Why do customers leave us?

What control do we have over the future direction of our business?

Do we earn a price premium for our product or service?

Can we sustain our differentiation over time?  For how long?

Are we likely to develop a second successful offering?  When?

Are we an engineering-driven company?

Have we created new market segments, or did our customers find us?

Can we further segment our markets?  Can we extend our markets?

Do we look outside on a regular basis for new ideas and technologies?

Do our key customers and suppliers know about our future roadmaps?

Is marketing an equal partner in the innovation process?

Is our business model widely understood within our company?

Do our key customers and suppliers share their roadmaps with us?

Is innovation managed as a business or as. a technology function?

Can we direct the future evolution of our markets?

Will customers and suppliers fit their business models to our own?

Do other companies routinely invest in projects that require our technology as a platform?


How Different from Previous Type NA 1) there is now innovative work being done within the Type 1 firm, 2)  some differentiation is achieved by the company through its innovations and perhaps through its business model; 3) some IP is being generated and defended. 1) innovation is now a planned organizational process; 2) innovation now is treated as an investment in the company’s future; 3) the company now segments its markets and serves multiple segments; 4) functions beyond engineering or R&D are now a part of the innovation process; 5) IP management now coordinated inside the firm as someone’s responsibility. 1) the Type 3 company looks outside for innovations; 2) there is a role for suppliers and customers in the innovation process; 3) the business model can be extended to adjacent markets for new growth; 4) Innovation becomes a cross-functional activity; 5)  IP now managed as a corporate asset, with occasional outlicensing of under-used internal technologies 1) the company’s internal and external R&D activities are now integrated through the company’s widely understood business model; 2) the company’s innovation roadmaps are widely shared, and access is reciprocated by those parties; 3) the company’s business model is now focused on new markets and new businesses, as well as current business, and the company is able to align its business model with customers and suppliers; 4) innovation is now a business function; 5) IP now is managed as another kind of financial asset. 1) The company’s business model is interconnected with the business models of its key suppliers and customers; 2) Innovating the company’s business model, itself is now part of the company’s innovation task; 3) External partners now share technical and financial risks and rewards with the company in the innovation process; 4) IP is managed as a strategic asset, helping the company enter new businesses and exit existing businesses.


For more information, see Ch. 5 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough

Positioning Yourself to Exploit Secondary Markets

Positioning Yourself to Exploit Secondary Markets

While it is too soon to say that secondary innovation markets have arrived in most industries in most advanced economies, it is not too soon to plan for the emergence of secondary markets in your industry.  In industries like semiconductors, biotechnology, consumer products, chemicals, and mortgage banking, secondary markets have had powerful impacts upon industries when they do emerge. How can you assess whether and when secondary innovation markets are likely to impact your industry?  Here are a few questions to explore to guide your assessment:

  • Have any important technologies been introduced in your industry where one firm handed off the technology to another firm (via a license, JV, asset sale or spin out) at some point in the innovation process?  How often did this occur last year?
  • Did any university research projects turn into innovative new product or service offerings in your industry last year?
  • How many patents were reassigned last year in the patent classes that are closest to your core technologies?
  • How many times were you contacted last year with offers to license in someone else’s technology?  How many times are you contacted about licensing your technology?  How long does it take you to respond?
  • Did any companies in your industry go bankrupt last year?  What happened to their technologies, and the IP associated with those technologies?
  • How many sales and transfers of patents were you and/or your outside law firm involved with last year?  How many sales and transfers are they aware of in your industry?
  • Are any new firms entering your industry with IP-based business models?  (These are discussed in Chapter 7).
  • Are any innovation intermediaries (see Chapter 6) working for you or any of your major competitors?
  • How many of your internal R&D projects were shelved or cancelled last year, without any licensing or spin out activity resulting from it?

These questions should be the beginning of an internal process to determine the stage at which your innovation practices have opened and leveraged external resources. Based on the answers to these questions, it would be relevant to start assessing the new practices and strategies to pursue.

For more information, see Ch. 3 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough

How Can IP Markets  Enable New Innovation Opportunities?

How Can IP Markets Enable New Innovation Opportunities?

The experiences of Texas Instruments, Polaroid, and IBM illustrate the emergence of an important force affecting the external innovation environment: the growth of ‘intermediate markets’, referring to a market that emerges after the creation of a new technology, before that technology has been sold.

Mortgages and biotechnology drug development illustrate the emergence of intermediate innovation markets. The presence of such markets expands the number of ways a new technology can be used and promotes specialization among different participants in the markets. Some companies result specializing in creating new technologies, others specialize in developing new products and other focus on special services or niches.

These secondary markets are in media, finance, and biotechnology, as illustrated by re-releases of musicals, the mortgage-backed securities industry, and the growth of patent acquisition and licensing in biotech.  



For more information, see Ch. 3 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough


How to Connect IP Management to Open Innovation?

How to Connect IP Management to Open Innovation?



“…if you don’t license, chances are very good that someone else has a very good technology too.  It’s rare that you’re the only game in town.  So do you want to participate in the licensing revenues, or not?” — Steve Baggett, Director of External Business Development at P&G


In the earliest phase of the technology lifecycle, it pays to be very open.  Neither you nor others know yet the best use of a particular technology, and no one has an appropriate business model to commercialize any applications either.  As the dominant design emerges, tightening the protection for one’s ideas becomes very important. In the mature phase, IP management must become more differentiated and segmented, to support different applications of the technology in different uses.  In the decline phase, firms can now aggressively harvest the fruits of their earlier investments in IP protection.

Managing internal and external innovations and IP within an open business model ultimately requires the construction and support of a rich internal innovation network, connected to a diverse external innovation community. This effort is worth it since this type of innovation will sustain the most enduring businesses of the 21st century.

The table below is very helpful to identify an organization’s current business model and to guide how it can improve innovation and IP management practices to transition successfully towards an open innovation strategy.

Matrix of Business Models Framework

Type Business Model Innovation Process IP Management Examples
1 undifferentiated None NA Mom and pop restaurants
2 Differentiated Ad hoc Reactive Startup technology companies
3 Segmented Planned Defensive Technology push companies
4 Externally Aware Externally Supportive Enabling Asset Mature industrial R&D firms
5 Integrated Connected to Business Model Financial Asset Leading financial firms
6 Platform Leading Identifies New Business Models Strategic Asset Intel – Pentium

Walmart, Dell



For more information, see Ch. 5 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough


Open Innovation and the Xerox-PARC Spinoffs

Open Innovation and the Xerox-PARC Spinoffs



Ideas “on the shelf” are no longer being actively pursued by the R&D organization, nor are they actually being used by the business unit. These ideas usually do not flow outside because 1) companies think that if they cannot find a profitable use for their technology, no one else will either and 2) buyers may worry that the sellers of unutilized technologies will only offer the “bad” ones (adverse selection). While selling companies have significant prior information on a technology project, that information will be interpreted within the context of the company’s business model.  So, the buyer may see an opportunity that is not visible to the seller, due to a different business model.

I identified 35 projects that left Xerox after funding for the work had ended within Xerox.  Xerox judged that there was little or no additional value to be gained from continuing this work.  In 30 of the 35 projects, Xerox even gave a license for the technology to the departing spin-off, so most of these separations were consciously managed departures, not inadvertent oversights. In 24 of the 35 projects, there was little business success after separation.  But for 11 of the projects, each of which developed under a very different business model from that of Xerox, there turned out to be substantial value.  The collective market value of the companies that emerged from these 11 projects turned out to exceed the total market value of Xerox by a factor of two.


For more information, see Ch. 2 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough


Opening Your Innovation Processes

Opening Your Innovation Processes


Unused ideas abound in many companies.  When Procter & Gamble surveyed all of the patents it owned, it determined that about 10% of them were in active use in at least one P&G business, and that many of the remaining 90% of patents had no business value of any kind to P&G (Sakkab, 2002). Yes, not letting these patents go to the market would prevent the cost of false positives but why not let these test with different business models? Taking these remaining patents to the outside might cause a lot of internal resistance but the costs of letting them remain unused are even higher.

There are subtle business models that have emerged in the “creative commons” arena.  One example of such a model is when companies voluntarily choose to donate portions of their intellectual property to a “commons”, so that they and others can practice their technologies freely without fear of being sued for patent infringement. This would boost the amount of innovative activity in the area, and effectively lower the cost of producing useful output for customers of this activity. Intel has boosted innovation by creating “lablets” that work closely with universities to collaborate on research that will be published, and not owned by Intel.   IBM recently created a powerful example of this in their decision to transfer 500 software patents to a nonprofit foundation in the open source community. Instead of having to pay Microsoft or another company for a proprietary operatinOpen Business Models g system, open source guarantees a cheaper alternative that will work well with IBM’s products and services.

Whether you are in a large organization or a small one, chances are you need to open up your innovation processes.  But in order to do this effectively, you must connect your business model to your innovation process.  Companies that are large typically enjoy strong business models but It is harder for them to change their business models, in order to exploit open innovation opportunities.  Small companies, on the other hand, lack the strong business model and resources to enable them to exploit the opportunities of open innovation without fear of being copied by a larger foe.  IP protection can only be one of many tools in their business model to strive to reach success.


For more information, see Ch. 2 Open Business Models by Henry Chesbrough